International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of cell therapy and cell-free therapy. The schematic diagram demonstrating the cell-therapy and cell-free therapy for musculoskeletal disorders. For cell therapy, tissue-derived MSCs and iPSC-MSCs are applied by direct injection into injured area. A part of injected cells migrates to the damaged region of tissue and participates in proliferation and differentiation while most of the injected cells secrete paracrine factors such as exosomes containing miRNAs to promote a regenerative condition. Cell-free therapy includes exosome therapy and miRNA therapy. Exosome can be obtained in massive quantity from iPSC-MSCs, and synthetic miRNA also can be obtained in vitro.
International Journal of Stem Cells 2021;14:150-67 https://doi.org/10.15283/ijsc20167
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