International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1. Immunomodulation effect of mesenchymal stem cells on cytokines storm led by COVID-19. When SARS-CoV-2 enters the lungs, it attracts immune cells to infection areas and localizes inflammation. The lethal unchecked systemic inflammatory response is caused by the secretion of large levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin, interferons, chemokines, and other factors by immune effector cells in this infection. After MSC therapy, these cells reach the lung tissue and secrete factors that can modulate the immune system; they also can prevent ROS and even fibrosis of the lung tissue. Abbreviation: ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome, COVID-19: coronavirus disease 2019, CCL: chemokine (C-C motif) ligand, CXCL: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand, C3: Complement component 3, CRP: C-reactive protein, DC reg: regulatory dendritic cells, GSCF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1, HLA-G5: human leukocyte antigen-G, IL: interleukin, IFN: interferon, IP10: IFN-γ-Inducible Protein 10, IL-1RA: interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, LIF: leukemia inhibitory factor, IDO: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells, MIP1A: Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 Alpha, MCP1: monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, NKCs: natural killer cells, NO: nitric oxide, PERIF: peripheral, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, ROS: reactive oxygen species, SARS-CoV: severe acute respiratory-associated coronavirus, SOD-3: superoxide dismutase, TSG-6: TNFα-stimulated gene-6, TGF-β: transforming growth factor, Treg: regulatory T. With permission from Kavianpour et al. 2020 (10).
International Journal of Stem Cells 2021;14:252-61
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