International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Potential benefits of extracellular vesicles as therapeutic agents in IUA

Donor cell Animal Time period Dose of Evs Outcomes Mechanism Reference
Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells Albino rats 8 weeks 100 μg

Restored endometrial glands in the uterine sections

Decreased collagen fiber deposition in the endometrium

Downregulated TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-1, IL-6, RUNX2, and collagen-I (80)
Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells SD rats 8 weeks 100 μl

Excellent neovascularization

Reduced fibrosis formation and promoted collagen remodeling

Unregulated ERα positive cells and PR positive areas

16 miRNA, especially miR-223-3p induced the polarization of macrophages to the M2 phenotype (79)
Rat uterus derived mesenchymal stem cells Wistar albino rats 8 weeks 25 μg

Supported the formation of blood vessels

Upreguleated CD31 and VEGFR-1 decreased the MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 expressions (81)
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells SD rats 14 days None

Repress endometrial fibrosis and promote functional recovery

miR-340 in the exosomes reduced the upregulated expression of Collagen I1α, α-SMA and TGF-βR1 (74)
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells Mice None 4.1E+9 particles/ml

Promote cell proliferation and cell migration in vitro

Repair damaged endometrium

Overexpress miR-29a to reduce α-SMA, Collagen I, SMAD2, and SMAD3 (76)
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells SD rats 8 weeks 100 μg

Endometrial regeneration

Improves endometrial receptivity and fertility

Upregulate the expression of VEGF integrin and LIF (77)
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells SD rats None 5 μg

Inhabit endometrial fibrosis

lncRNA-MIAT in Exosomes regulate miR-150-5p (78)
Menstrual blood-derived stromal cells SD rats 18 days 4.25×108 particle/ml

Recovered the morphology and promoted the proliferation of endometrial cells

Restore endometrial receptivity and improve the fertility

Restored the thickness of endometrium, gland numbers and vascular

Inhibit TGFβ1/SMAD3 mediated endometrial fibrosis by upregulating BMP7 expression and SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation (73)
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells SD rats None None

Facilitate the regeneration of the endometrium

Enhanced endometrial receptivity

Promoted neovascularization


Anti-fibrotic activity

Upregulated HOXA-1, LIF, Integrin β3, IGF-1, VEGF and bFGF (85)

SD: Sprague Dawley, TNF: tumor necrosis factor, TGF: transforming growth factor, IL: interleukin, RUNX: runt-related transcription factor, VEGFR: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, ER: estrogen receptor, PR: progesterone receptor, MMP: matrix metalloproteinase, TIMP: tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, SMA: smooth muscle actin, VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor, LIF: leukemia inhibitory factor, IGF: insulin-like growth factor, FGF: fibroblast growth factor.

International Journal of Stem Cells 2023;16:260-8
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