International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Literature overview of MSC immunomodulatory properties regulated by biomechanical forces

Biomechanical force MSC origin Bioreactor Immunomodulation References
Shear stress Human Microfluidics devices Upregulated anti-inflammatory mediators (COX-2, HO-1, PGE2) and downregulated TNF-α through Ca2+, Akt, MAPK, FAK signaling (16)
Human Spinner vessels Upregulated IL-6 (17)
Human Spinner flask Suppressed T cell proliferation (18)
Rat ALN-reactor Inhibited inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IFN-γ) and induced other cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12) (19)
Tensile stress Human PDMS-based custom-made device Upregulated inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α) (23)
Human Flexercell FX-4000TM strain unit Upregulated pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8) (24)
Human Custom-made pressure chamber Upregulated Piezo1 and osteogenic maker genes expression through ERK, p38 signaling (30)
Mouse Flexcell Fx-4000T tension unit TNF-α endocytosis-derived MSC homeostasis (32)
HP Human Custom pressure bioreactor Upregulated COX-2, depending on HP magnitude and frequency (31)

MSC: mesenchymal stromal cell, COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, HO-1: heme oxygenase-1, PGE2: prostaglandin E2, TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase, FAK: focal adhesion kinase, ALN: artificial lymph node, IFN-γ: interferon-gamma, IL-1: interleukin-1, PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane, IL-6: interleukin-6, IL-8: interleukin-8, IL-12: interleukin-12, Piezo1: Piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1, ERK: extracellular-regulated kinase, HP: hydrostatic pressure.

International Journal of Stem Cells 2023;16:251-9
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