International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Fig. 2.

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Fig. 2. Host-microbe interactions shape intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and tissue turnover. Peptidoglycan (PG) from gut microbe activates the IMD pathway in enterocytes, leading to the production of antimicrobial peptide (AMP), which is a bactericidal effector molecule. Pathogens and pathobionts produce uracil, which activates the dual oxidase (DUOX) pathway and triggers the oxidative burst. Enterocytes damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the host and virulence factor (VF) from pathogens produce cytokine that activates ISC proliferation and differentiation for tissue turnover.
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