International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Table. 2.

Table. 2.

A summary of bioprinting techniques used for induced pluripotent stem cell bioprinting

Inkjet-based bioprinting Extrusion-based bioprinting Laser-assisted bioprinting Reference
Printing process Drop by drop Line by line Dot by dot (28-40)
Print speed Fast (1∼10,000 droplets/s) Slow (10∼50 μm/s) Fast (200∼1,600 mm/s)
Fabrication resolution Relatively high (50∼300 μm) Relatively low (∼200 μm) High (>0.5∼20 μm)
Bioink preparation time Short Short Long
Cell viability High (>85%) Potential reduction due to pressure and shear stress High cell viability (>95%)
Cell density Low (<106 cells/ml) High (up to 108 cells/ml) High (up to 108 cells/ml)
Throughput High Medium Low-medium
Scalability Low High Low
Bioink viscosity 3.5∼12 mPa/s 30∼6×107 mPa/s 1∼300 mPa/s
Cost Low Medium High
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