International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Table. 3.

Table. 3.

A summary of undifferentiated induced pluripotent stem cell bioprinting

Printing technique Nozzle diameter (μm) Bioink Crosslinker Construct design Cell concentration (cells/ml) Characterization Reference
Extrusion 101.6 1.5% w/v alginate 600 mM CaCl2 Ring structure 1×106 Pluripotency: flow cytometry (OCT3/4, SSEA4) (59)
40 GeltrexTM - 100 nl droplet 4.5×106 Pluripotency: immunostaining (TRA-1-81), qRT-PCR (NANOG) (82)
Spontaneous differentiation: qRT-PCR (PAX3, HAND1, SOX-17)
200 5% w/v alginate, 5% w/v carboxymethyl-chitosan, 1.5% w/v agarose 2% CaCl2 for 10 min Grid structure 8×107 Proliferation: PrestoBlue assay (83)
Pluripotency: flow cytometry (OCT4, SOX2, TRA-1-60, SSEA4), immunostaining (OCT4, SOX2, SSEA4, TRA-1-60)
Spontaneous differentiation: qRT-PCR (H19, PDX1, HAND1, IGF2, NES, TUBB3)
Directed neural differentiation: immunostaining (PAX6, NES, MAP2, GFAP, TUBB3, SYP, GABA), qRT-PCR (NES, TUBB3, GFAP, GABA, NKX2-1, PET1, OLIG2)
300 NFC alginate (60 : 40), NFC with hyaluronic acid 100 mM CaCl2, 0.001% H2O2 Grid structure 2×107 Pluripotency: immunostaining (OCT4) (84)
Spontaneous differentiation: qRT-PCR (SOX9, ACAN, Coll 2A1)
Directed chondrogenic differentiation: Alcian blue-van Gieson staining (GAG), Safranin-O staining, immunostaining (Collagen type II)
260 2% w/v hydroxypropyl chitin (HPCH), 0%∼30% MatrigelTM Temperature 37℃ Grid structure 1×106 Proliferation: Cell Counting Kit-8 assay (72)
Pluripotency: AP staining, immunostaining (OCT4, SSEA4), flow cytometry (OCT4, SSEA4), qRT-PCR (OCT4, NANOG)
260 4% w/w alginate, 1% w/w polyethylene glycol fibrinogen 0.3 M CaCl2, 365 nm UV for 5 min Grid structure 8×106 Proliferation: immunostaining (Ki67) (49)
Pluripotency: qRT-PCR (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG), immunostaining (OCT4)
210 10% gelatin methacrylate, fibronectin, laminin-111, collagen methacrylate 405 nm flashlight for 20 sec Human chambered muscle pumps 1.5×107 Proliferation: immunostaining (Ki67) (81)
Directed cardiac differentiation: immunostaining (cTnT, TUNEL, αSMA, CD31, CX43, Bin1, RYR2, SERCA2, α-actin, cTnI)
Laser N/A 1 wt% hyaluronic acid, MatrigelTM N/A 0.01∼1 nl droplets 3.3×107 Proliferation: LDH activity assay, Tripan blue staining, MTT assay, immunostaining (Ki67) (85)
Pluripotency: ALP assay, immunostaining (OCT3/4, NANOG, ALP, SSEA4)
Spontaneous differentiation: immunostaining (βIII Tubulin, Cytokeratin 8, AFP, SMA, von Willebrand factor, α-actinin)
Directed cardiac differentiation: immunostaining (Brachyury, cTnT, NKX2.5, α-actinin)

N/A: not available, NFC: nanofibrilated cellulose, UV: ultraviolet.

International Journal of Stem Cells 2024;17:38-50
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