International Journal of Stem Cells : eISSN 2005-5447

Table. 4.

Table. 4.

Biomechanical and biochemical characterization of tissues for induced pluripotent stem cell bioink design

Biochemical Biomechanical Reference


Extracellular matrix (ECM) component Soluble factor Stiffness (elastic modulus) (kPa) (88, 89)
Brain

Proteoglycans (aggrecan, brevican, versican, neurocan, phosphacan, syndecan, glypican, agrin)

Glycoproteins (link protein, tenascin-R, collagens, fibronectin, laminin, nidogen)

Glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid)

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)

Nerve growth factor (NGF)

Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3)

0.5∼3 (90-92)
Liver

Glycoproteins (collagen, laminin, fibronectin, tenascin, nidogen)

Proteoglycans (heparan, dermatan, chondroitin sulphate, perlecan, biglycan, decorin)

Glycosaminoglycan (hyaluronic acid)

PDGF

FGF

VEGF

Endothelin-1 (ET-1)

EGF

Insulin growth factor

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)

5∼10 (93, 94)
Lung

Glycoproteins (collagen, fibronectin, laminin, elastin)

Proteoglycans (chondroitin sulphate)

Glycosaminoglycan

FGF

Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)

0.5∼15 (95, 96)
Heart

Glycoproteins (collagen, laminin, fibronectin, elastin)

Proteoglycans (chondroitin sulphate, versican)

Glycosaminoglycan

FGF

VEGF

EGF

Tissue growth factors (TGFs)

10∼15 (97, 98)
Skin

Glycoproteins (collagen, elastin, fibronectin, laminin)

Proteoglycans (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate)

Glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid, chondroitin, dermatan, heparin), keratin

EGF

Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)

VEGF

PDGF

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)

60∼850 (99, 100)
Bone

Glycoprotein (collagen type-1)

Carbonated apatite

VEGF

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP2, BMP7)

15,000∼20,000 (101)

PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor, FGF: fibroblast growth factor, VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor, EGF: epidermal growth factor.

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