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Endothelial Progenitor Cells: A Brief Update
International Journal of Stem Cells
Published online November 30, 2023;  
© 2023 Korean Society for Stem Cell Research.

Amna Rashid Tariq1,*, Mijung Lee1,*, Manho Kim1,2,3

1Department of Neurology, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
2Neuroscience Dementia Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3Protein Metabolism Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Manho Kim
Department of Neurology, Biomedical Research Institude, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea
*These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received July 3, 2023; Revised August 30, 2023; Accepted October 5, 2023.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
An enormous amount of current data has suggested involvement of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in neovasculogenesis in both human and animal models. EPC level is an indicator of possible cardiovascular risk such as Alzheimer disease. EPC therapeutics requires its identification, isolation, differentiation and thus expansion. We approach here the peculiar techniques through current and previous reports available to find the most plausible and fast way of their expansion to be used in therapeutics. We discuss here the techniques for EPCs isolation from different resources like bone marrow and peripheral blood circulation. EPCs have been isolated by methods which used fibronectin plating and addition of various growth factors to culture media. Particularly, the investigations which tried to enhance EPC differentiation while inducing with growth factors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase are shared. We also include the cryopreservation and other storage methods of EPCs for a longer time. Sufficient amount of EPCs are required in transplantation and other therapeutics which signifies their in vitro expansion. We highlight the role of EPCs in transplantation which improved neurogenesis in animal models of ischemic stroke and human with acute cerebral infarct in the brain. Accumulatively, these data suggest the exhilarating route for enhancing EPC number to make their use in the clinic. Finally, we identify the expression of specific biomarkers in EPCs under the influence of growth factors. This review provides a brief overview of factors involved in EPC expansion and transplantation and raises interesting questions at every stage with constructive suggestions.
Keywords : Endothelial progenitor cells, Cell culture techniques, Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins, CD34

May 2024, 17 (2)
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